A new large-scale study found that both smoking and cardiovascular disease impact learning and memory throughout adulthood, starting at age 18.
While smoking turned to have the biggest impact on the verbal learning and memory abilities in women, cardiovascular disease had a more significant impact on the same abilities in men.
The reason why smoking and cardiovascular disease affect men and women differently, is not entirely clear. But these findings point out the importance of considering biological sex in studying contributors to decreased brain function.
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